Typed Routing Proposal

The following is a proposal for a typed routing system. Some of it is implemented in a PR, but it is not done yet nor is it currently available as a supported part of the go_router package. I'm writing this down as a way to do what I like doing: focusing on the client code I want to write instead of focusing only on the implementation.


Routing in go_router fundamentally relies on the ability to match a string-based location in a URI format into one or more page builders, each that require zero or more arguments that are passed as path and query parameters as part of the location. go_router does a good job of making the path and query parameters available via the params and queryParams properties of the GoRouterState object, but often the page builder must first parse the parameters into types that aren't Strings, e.g.

  path: ':authorId',
  builder: (context, state) {
    // require the authorId to be present and be an integer
    final authorId = int.parse(state.params['authorId']!);
    return AuthorDetailsScreen(authorId: authorId);

In this example, the authorId parameter is a) required and b) must be an int. However, neither of these requirements are checked until run-time, making it easy to write code that is not type-safe, e.g.

void _tap() => context.go('/author/a42'); // error: `a42` is not an `int`

Since Dart is a statically typed language, we'd love to have mistakes get caught at compile-time instead of waiting until run-time. The goal of the typed routing proposal is to provide a way to define the required and optional parameters that a specific route consumes and to use code generation to take out the drudgery of writing a bunch of go, push and location boilerplate code implementations ourselves.

The code generator to do this work today in our experimental implementation is the build_runner package but the plan is to move to Dart macros when they're available.

Defining a route#

Define each route as a class extending GoRouteData and overriding the build method.

class PersonRoute extends GoRouteData {
  PersonRoute({required this.fid, required this.pid});
  final String fid;
  final String pid;

  Widget build(BuildContext context) => PersonScreen(fid: fid, pid: pid);

Required parameters are pulled from the route's path defined in the route tree.

Route tree#

The tree of routes is defined as an attribute on each of the top-level routes:

  path: '/',
  routes: [
      path: 'family/:fid',
      routes: [
          path: 'person/:pid',
class HomeRoute extends GoRouteData {...}
class FamilyRoute extends GoRouteData {...}
class PersonRoute extends GoRouteData {...}

@TypedGoRoute<LoginRoute>(path: '/login')
class LoginRoute extends GoRouteData {...}

GoRouter initialization#

The code generator aggregates all top-level routes into a single list called $appRoutes for use in initializing the GoRouter instance:

final _router = GoRouter(routes: $appRoutes);

Error builder#

You can use typed routes to provide an error builder as well:

class ErrorRoute extends GoRouteData {
  ErrorRoute({required this.error});
  final Exception error;

  Widget build(BuildContext context) => ErrorScreen(error: error);

With this in place, you can provide the errorBuilder parameter like so:

final _router = GoRouter(
  routes: $appRoutes,
  errorBuilder: (c, s) => ErrorRoute(s.error!).build(c),


Navigate using the go or push methods provided by the code generator:

void _tap() => PersonRoute(fid: 'f2', pid: 'p1').go(context);

If you get this wrong, the compiler will complain:

// error: missing required parameter 'fid'
void _tap() => PersonRoute(pid: 'p1').go(context);

This, of course, is the whole point of typed routing; the compiler can let us known when we get it wrong.

Query parameters#

Optional parameters indicate query parameters:

class LoginRoute extends GoRouteData {
  final String? from;

  Widget build(BuildContext context) => LoginScreen(from: from);

Extra parameter#

A route can consume an extra parameter by taking it as a typed constructor parameter with the special name $extra:

class PersonRouteWithExtra extends GoRouteData {
  final Person $extra;

  Widget build(BuildContext context) => PersonScreen(person: $extra);

Pass the extra param as a typed object:

void _tap() => PersonRouteWithExtra(Person(name: 'Marvin', age: 42)).go(context);

The $extra parameter is still passed outside of the location, still defeats dynamic and deep linking (including the brower's Back button) and is still not recommended when targeting Flutter web.

Mixed parameters#

You can, of course, combine the use of path, query and $extra parameters:

class HotdogRouteWithEverything extends GoRouteData {
  HotdogRouteWithEverything(this.ketchup, this.mustard, this.$extra);
  final bool ketchup; // required path parameter
  final String? mustard; // optional query parameter
  final Sauce $extra; // special $extra parameter

  Widget build(BuildContext context) => HotdogScreen(ketchup, mustard, $extra);

This seems kinda silly, but it works.


Redirect using the location property on a route provided by the code generator:

redirect: (state) {
  final loggedIn = loginInfo.loggedIn;
  final loggingIn = state.subloc == LoginRoute().location;
  if( !loggedIn && !loggingIn ) return LoginRoute(from: state.subloc).location;
  if( loggedIn && loggingIn ) return HomeRoute().location;
  return null;

Route-level redirection#

Handle route-level redirects by implementing the redirect method on the route:

class HomeRoute extends GoRouteData {
  // no need to implement [build] when this [redirect] is unconditional
  String? redirect() => BooksRoute().location;

Type conversions#

The code generator can convert simple types like int and enum to/from the String type of the underlying params:

enum BookKind { all, popular, recent }

class BooksRoute extends GoRouteData {
  BooksRoute({this.kind = BookKind.popular});
  final BookKind kind;

  Widget build(BuildContext context) => BooksScreen(kind: kind);


By default, the GoRouter will use the app it finds in the widget tree, e.g. MaterialApp, CupertinoApp, WidgetApp, etc. and use the corresponding page type to create the page that wraps the Widget returned by the route's build method, e.g. MaterialPage, CupertinoPage, NoTransitionPage, etc. Furthermore, it will use the state.pageKey property to set the key property of the page and the restorationId of the page.

Transition override#

If you'd like to change how the page is created, e.g. to use a different page type, pass non-default parameters when creating the page (like a custom key) or access the GoRouteState object, you can override the buildPage method of the base class instead of the build method:

class MyMaterialRouteWithKey extends GoRouteData {
  static final _key = LocalKey('my-route-with-key');

  MaterialPage<void> buildPage(BuildContext context, GoRouterState state) =>
      key: _key,
      child: MyPage(),

Custom transitions#

Overriding the buildPage method is also useful for custom transitions:

class FancyRoute extends GoRouteData {
  MaterialPage<void> buildPage(BuildContext context, GoRouterState state) =>
      key: state.pageKey,
      child: FancyPage(),
      transitionsBuilder: (context, animation, animation2, child) =>
          RotationTransition(turns: animation, child: child),

Implementation notes#

  1. The @TypedGoRoute annotation:
    • It's only valid to annotate implementations of GoRouteData.
    • The type parameter MUST be provided.
    • The root @TypedGoRoute type param must match the annotated class.
    • Later, maybe:
      • Expand the set of things that can be annotated. Widgets? Libraries?
  2. GoRouteData implementations
    • Must have a default constructor (or factory).
    • All constructor parameters must map 1-to-1 name and type to fields or getters on the type.
    • Only fields that align getters with constructor parameters
    • It is valid to have a const constructor. In the case of a no-param constructor, const will be used to initailze the type.
    • Valid parameter/field/property types:
      • String: as-is
      • num, int, bool, DateTime, Duration, BigInt, double, Uri: encoded with toString, decoded with parse or similar.
      • Enum: encoded/decoded using kebab cased names.
    • Later, maybe:
      • Support for using writeable fields and/or setters